OLYMPIC GAMES

The Olympic Games is an international multi-sport event subdivided into summer and winter sporting events. The summer and winter games are each held every four years. Until 1992, they were both held in the same year. Since then, the summer games are held during the first year of an Olympiad, the winter games during the third year.

The original Olympic Games were first recorded in 776 BC in Olympia, Greece, and were celebrated until AD 393. Interest in reviving the Olympic Games proper was first shown by the Greek poet and newspaper editor Panagiotis Soutsos in his poem “Dialogue of the Dead” in 1833. Evangelos Zappas sponsored the first modern international Olympic Games in 1859. He paid for the refurbishment of the Panathinaiko Stadium for Games held there in 1870 and 1875. This was noted in newspapers and publications around the world including the London Review, which stated that “the Olympian Games, discontinued for centuries, have recently been revived! Here is strange news indeed … the classical games of antiquity were revived near Athens”.

The International Olympic Committee was founded in 1894 on the initiative of a French nobleman, Pierre Frédy, Baron de Coubertin. The first of the IOC’s Olympic Games were the 1896 Summer Olympics, held in Athens, Greece. Participation in the Olympic Games has increased to include athletes from nearly all nations worldwide. With the improvement of satellite communications and global telecasts of the events, the Olympics are consistently gaining supporters. The most recent Summer Olympics were the 2004 Games in Athens and the most recent Winter Olympics were the 2006 Games in Turin. The upcoming games in Beijing are planned to comprise 302 events in 28 sports. As of 2006, the Winter Olympics were competed in 84 events in 7 sports.

 

OLYMPIC EMBLEM

The emblem of the Olympic Games is composed of five interlocking rings (blue, yellow, black, green, and red respectively) on a white field. This was originally designed in 1913 by Baron Pierre de Coubertin, the founder of the modern Olympic Games. Upon its initial introduction, de Coubertin stated the following in the August, 1913 edition of Revue Olympique:

The emblem chosen to illustrate and represent the world Congress of 1914 …: five intertwined rings in different colours – blue, yellow, black, green, red – are placed on the white field of the paper. These five rings represent the five parts of the world which now are won over to Olympism and willing to accept healthy competition.

 

OLYMPIC BEIJING 2008

The 2008 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXIX Olympiad, are an international multi-sport event, that will be held in Beijing, People’s Republic of China from August 8 to August 24, 2008, and followed by the 2008 Summer Paralympics from September 6 to September 17. 10,500 athletes are expected to compete in 302 events in 28 sports, just one event more than was on the schedule of the Athens games of 2004.

The Olympic games were awarded to Beijing after an exhaustive ballot of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) on July 13, 2001. The official logo of the games, titled “Dancing Beijing,” features a stylized calligraphic character jīng (京, meaning capital), referencing the host city. The mascots of Beijing 2008 are the five Fuwa, each representing both a color of the Olympic rings and a symbol of Chinese culture. The Olympic slogan, One World, One Dream, calls upon the world to unite in the Olympic spirit. Several new National Olympic Committees (NOCs) have also been recognized by the IOC.

The Chinese government has promoted the games to highlight China’s emergence on the world stage. A total of 37 venues will be used to host the events including 12 newly constructed venues. Earlier in 2007, former IOC president Juan Antonio Samaranch had said that he believes that the Beijing games will be “the best in Olympic history.”

 

OLYMPIC BEIJING’S EMBLEM

Dancing Beijing is the name of the official emblem of the 2008 Summer Olympics, to be held in Beijing in the People’s Republic of China. It was unveiled in August 2003 in a ceremony attended by 2,008 people at Beijing’s Temple of Heaven. 

 

The emblem draws on various elements of Chinese culture, depicting a traditional red Chinese seal above the words “Beijing 2008” and the Olympic rings. The seal is inscribed with a stylised calligraphic rendition of the Chinese character 京 (jīng, meaning ‘capital’, from the name of the host city) in the form of a dancing figure. The curves are also claimed to suggest the body of a wriggling Chinese dragon. The open arms of the figure symbolise the invitation of China to the world to share in its culture. The figure also resembles that of a runner crossing the finish line. Red, the dominant colour of the emblem, is an important colour in Chinese society, often signifying good luck.

 

OLYMPICS BEIJING’S MASCOTS

Like the Five Olympic Rings from which they draw their color and inspiration, Fuwa will serve as the Official Mascots of Beijing 2008 Olympic Games, carrying a message of friendship and peace — and good wishes from China — to children all over the world.

Designed to express the playful qualities of five little children who form an intimate circle of friends, Fuwa also embody the natural characteristics of four of China’s most popular animals — the Fish, the Panda, the Tibetan Antelope, the Swallow — and the Olympic Flame.

Each of Fuwa has a rhyming two-syllable name — a traditional way of expressing affection for children in China. Beibei is the Fish, Jingjing is the Panda, Huanhuan is the Olympic Flame, Yingying is the Tibetan Antelope and Nini is the Swallow.

When you put their names together — Bei Jing Huan Ying Ni — they say “Welcome to Beijing,” offering a warm invitation that reflects the mission of Fuwa as young ambassadors for the Olympic Games.

Fuwa also embody both the landscape and the dreams and aspirations of people from every part of the vast country of China. In their origins and their headpieces, you can see the five elements of nature — the sea, forest, fire, earth and sky — all stylistically rendered in ways that represent the deep traditional influences of Chinese folk art and ornamentation.

KEMPEN ANTI DADAH

Sepanjang tahun 2007 sebanyak 15,578 aktiviti-aktiviti pencegahan telah dilaksanakan diseluruh negara. Ia merangkumi program pendidikan pencegahan dadah disekolah rendah/menengah dan IPT, golongan belia, tempat kerja dan komuniti. Seramai 1,990,203 orang telah diberi penerangan berkaitan dengan dadah. Selain dari aktiviti aktiviti ini, pihak terbabit juga berusaha menyedarkan semua tentang bahaya dadah termasuk menghasilkan video-video tentang bahayanya dadah.

 

 

DADAH…

Atas kesedaran bahayanya dadah,kerajaan telah mengambil inisiatif dengan menubuhkan beberapa agensi untuk membasmi dadah, antaranya ialah PEMADAM. PEMADAM adalah singkatan dari Persatuan Mencegah Dadah Malaysia . Ia adalah satu pertubuhan sukarela yang ditubuhkan untuk menolong mereka yang bermasalah berbangkit daripada penggunaan dadah, untuk memberi tunjuk ajar kepada orang ramai mengenai bahaya-bahaya penggunaan dadah dan juga untuk mendapat kerjasama orang ramai dalam usaha membasmi DADAH. Selain PEMADAM, PENGASIH juga ditubuhkan oleh kerajaan Malaysia dan dikelolai oleh Agensi Dadah Kebangsaan.

JENIS-JENIS DADAH POPULAR DI MALAYSIA

GANJA

Pokok ganja boleh hidup dalam pelbagai iklim. Tumbuhan ini mempunyai serabut yang kuat yang dikenali sebagai gentian hem dan digunakan dalam industri tekstil. Biji pokok ganja digunakan sebagai makanan burung mempunyai kandungan protein, asid lemak rantai panjang dan tenaga yang tinggi. Pokok ganja mengandungi bahan halusinogenik dan bahan kimia aktif psikoaktif dan psikologi lain seperti cannabinoid. Putik/pucuk dan daunnya boleh digunakan untuk tujuan perubatan dan rekreasi. Penyediaan sebegini dipanggil Ganja. Ganja digunakan dengan cara menelannya atau dengan cara menghisap bersama tembakau atau tanpa tembakau. Ada juga keju yang dihasilkan berasaskan lemak ganja. Di beberapa    negara di Eropah memberi lembu tenusu makanan dari pokok kanabis kerana dipercayai ianya menggalakkan pengeluaran susu.

HEROIN

Bentuk hablur putih biasanya merupakan garam hidroklorida, iaitu diasetilmorfin hidroklorida. Heroin sangat menagihkan, dan pengingesan kronik mengakibatkan toleran yang agak tinggi berbanding bahan-bahan yang lain, walaupun penggunaan sekali sekala tanpa sebarang simptom penarikan pernah diperhatikan.

Secara antarabangsa, heroin dikawal di bawah Jadual I dan IV bagi Konvensyen Tunggal Drug Narkotik. Pengeluaran, pemilikan, atau penjualan heroin di Amerika Syarikat adalah haram, tetapi di bawah nama diamorfina, heroin ialah dadah preskripsi yang sah di United Kingdom.

 

ECTASY                                                                                       

 

 

                  

 

 

 CANDU

 

 

 

 

                                         

 

 KOKAIN

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

METHAMPHE-TAMIN (AIS)   

DADAH

Dadah ialah bahan yang digunakan untuk merawat penyakit, mengurangkan simptom atau mengubasuai proses kimia di dalam badan untuk tujuan-tujuan tertentu. Walau bagaimanapun, bukan semua bahan yang dimakan dianggap dadah/drug. Misalnya, makanan yang dimakan secara normal tidak dianggap sebagai dadah melainkan makanan tersebut diambil khas untuk tujuan tertentu (contohnya kafeina sebagai perangsang).

Oleh sebab perkataan ‘drug’ dipinjam daripada bahasa Inggeris, perkataan ini membawa banyak maksud. Perkataan ‘drug’ lebih banyak digunakan dalam bidang farmasi dan perubatan (iaitu ubat), manakala perkataan ‘dadah’ membawa imej yang lebih negatif iaitu ketagihan.

Penggunaan dadah memang sudah lama wujud dalam sejarah manusia. Kaedah tertua dan paling meluas ialah dengan meminum arak. Selain itu, merokok tembakau (nikotina di dalam tembakau ialah bahan psikoaktif) juga digunakan oleh orang orang Asia dan Amerika sebelum abad ke 16. Kanabis juga pernah mendapat tempat sebagai salah satu dadah rekreasi yang terkenal pada suatu masa dulu.

Penggunaan opium(diekstrak daripada popi) untuk rekreasi adalah menjadi satu kebiasaan bagi orang Asia yang kemudiannya merebak ke Barat. Penggunaan Opium memuncak pada abad ke-19 setelah Britain dan beberapa kuasa barat mendesak China untuk membenarkan opium diimport daripada India dan beberapa negara Asia yang lain. Kokaina dan heroin dijual sebagai ubat berpaten pada abad ke-19 dan awal abad ke-20, dan digunakan sebagai ubat untuk beberapa jenis penyakit.

Pada mulanya, banyak bahan digunakan sebagai dadah rekreasi, tetapi mula ditinggalkan atas pelbagai sebab. Salah satunya ialah faktor agama. Misalnya Islam mengharamkan pengambilan minuman beralkohol atau arak, dan semua agama yang lain mengutuk penggunaan dadah untuk tujuan rekreasi, walaupun membenarkan pengambilan arak dan rokok tembakau. Bagi Islam pengambilan dadah adalah sama seperti meminum arak, oleh itu dadah untuk rekreasi juga diharamkan. Walau bagaimanapun, hukum untuk rokok masih lagi samar-samar.

Pada abad ke-20, sesetengah negara Barat, terutama Amerika Syarikat (AS) telah mengharamkan penggunaan dadah untuk rekreasi. AS juga telah mendesak (secara diplomasi, tekanan ekonomi dan ketenteraan) negara lain untuk mengikut jejak langkah mereka. Misalnya tumbuhan Jepun bergelar hemp (tergolong dalam kumpulan Kanabis) yang pada satu masa dahulu ditanam secara meluas sebagai sumber serabut tekstil ( textile fiber ) terpaksa dimusnahkan semasa pendudukan Amerika Syarikat selepas Perang Dunia II. Pada masa kini, tumbuhan itu hanya dibenarkan hidup di dalam kawasan pemeliharaan biologi terkawal sahaja.

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